Curt Rice  is a professor in the Department of Languages & Linguistics at the University of Tromsø  in Norway and also the university's vice president for research and development. Under Rice's direction, Tromsø put in place a new initiative—the Promotion Project—to promote more women to the position of full professor. These efforts were rewarded by the Norwegian government with the national Gender Equality Prize for 2011, which consisted of 2 million kroner (about $338,500). After hearing about the Promotion Project on Rice’s blog  and in a webinar , Science Careers asked Rice what prompted the university to try and redress the gender imbalance at the full-professor level, how successful they've been so far, and how young scientists elsewhere can benefit from the lessons learned.
The following highlights from the interview were edited for brevity and clarity.
Then, in academia, there are some specific structural impediments. For example, the job of being an associate professor has two main tasks, teaching and research, but the promotion to full professor often is based exclusively or at least heavily on performance as a researcher. It seems to be the case that women spend more time on their teaching than men do, so department chairs in big surveys report that when they have extra teaching that needs to be done, they often ask women to do it because they are willing. And students report that when it comes to getting help on their term papers and so on, women are more generous with their time than their male colleagues. But that doesn’t count when they apply for promotion, and so women tend to be older when they are promoted.
When I’m in a leadership position in a university, do I really want to go to my women associate professors and say, “Please spend less time on teaching?” I don’t want to do that because I have 10,000 students here who I want to get a good education. So, on the contrary, I would rather say to the men, “Spend more time on your teaching.” Except I don’t really want to do that, either, because it’s important that we have a profile as an active research institution. So this is one example of a situation where we have a structure that plays out differently for men and women.
But the second reason is that it’s smart. We believe that our university functions better as a workplace when we have gender balance at the top, and we believe—I mean there’s research on this, that’s what convinces us—that research groups function better when they are gender balanced. And we believe that leadership teams are more effective when they’re gender-balanced. That’s what has really been pushing us, especially in the last 5 years. We want to be better at providing research and education, and we believe that gender balance actually does make us better.
And then, there is some research to suggest that women as a group have lower self-confidence than men, that’s why we decided that the heart of this Promotion Project would be to have each individual woman put together a portfolio for evaluation. We would hire an outside person and ask that person to write a report evaluating the portfolio and giving very specific feedback on what they need to do to qualify for promotion. And that has had a tremendous effect. So actually, about 10% of the women got feedback that said, “You’re already there.” They then applied officially, and we now have promoted several of them. Each department chair had individual meetings with the other evaluated women to make a plan for the next 2 years, and now they are working in a very focused way toward responding to what came out of those trial evaluations.
And it’s really contributing to changing the whole culture of the university. One of the chairs just told me the other day that there were three men in their faculty who had said that they want a trial evaluation, and the chair said, “Great, let’s make that happen.” So this Promotion Project is an example of choosing to make the situation better for women, and as a result you make it better for everyone.
And then you also have to be assertive about discriminatory things. So when the teaching assignments are made, you have to be confident that gender is not a factor there, and if you need to ask questions to have that confidence, then you should ask those questions. It can be a delicate thing to do, so before an issue comes up, I think it’s good to ask, “How many men and women do we have actually working at this university, and do we have any goals about changing that?”—and just make it into one of the things that gets discussed. And then, when the teaching assignment comes along, you say, “Well, I’m just asking because I want to know, but what about that guy down there, is he doing his share of the teaching?” So it is risky, but I think if the topic becomes a normalized topic then it’s easier to bring it up. Which is part of why I think a culture of career development is really an important thing to pursue.
Elisabeth Pain is contributing editor for Europe.